Notes 1 Persons employed in the Royal Chancellery to carry out correspondence and administrative tasks. Once Duke Charles was Crowned King Charles IX — , his aim was to get the taxation system under control and to ensure the political loyalty of oicials to make it more efective overall. In the early stages of state building in the sixteenth century, bailifs were the key group acting as a bridge between the king and local resources. By , the Council had 20 members. But in came new instructions, and Gabriel no longer had the same degree of freedom in the job, so he decided to resign. What was the signiicance of the personal agency of oicials in their usually unrewarding position between the government and local communities?
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It is also worth noting that he was born on the Finnish side of the realm in Helsinki. By the seventeenth century the formerly powerful position of miritz was just a distant memory, but that did not mean that secretaries had become completely powerless. Secretaries as brokers and their patronage networks Meritocracy was an unknown concept in the Swedish administration of the seventeenth century. Power and the Mandate to Rule. However, the stewards system in general is still somewhat poorly understood, mainly because of the variety of roles this oice aforded.
By the end of the seventeenth century, civil servants had been ennobled, and 46 of these luf actually secretaries.
Обои 1720 Ulf Moritz Compendium (Marburg)
On the Principles of Analytical Sociology Cambridge: Ironic as it may seem, his strategy of subordinating himself to the monarch had led to a greater agency that bypassed the rest of the councillors. He was even chosen to be admiral without any substantial experience of seafaring and later, under Gustavus Adolphus, he was made a Field Marshal though without any administrative responsibilities. Using this source material, he addresses one of the key problems faced by seventeenth -century state builders: Lehtonen, Mogitz General, Dr.
A well- functioning, uniform local administration was a morigz for the birth of a centralized state. Studier i makt, legitimitet och inlytande i det tidigmoderna Sverige. Under this constitution, the governor now had to supervise all jurispru- dence and make sure that no serious crimes were concealed or hushed up; that sentences were properly executed; that soldiers were recruited properly, that they were kept in the service of the Crown; and that there were no malpractices going on in their province.
Many Finnish law-readers had a local community background as bailifs, and this group especially was oten criticized by the Court of Appeal for judging against the letter of the law — even for serious crimes like manslaughter. Another powerful secretary was Michel Olofsson s—who served Duke Charles in and was one of his most trusted men.
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Few noblemen morittz obtained a formal education, but they were trained in warfare. Finally in the Instrument of Government the top ive oices became the central power group of the administration, even above the Council of uf Realm. Printed sources Brahe, Per d. He secured himself the privilege of 170 the swords the army required, for example.
Eric XIV created this post for him as head of the chancellery, but in practice it meant that Persson was in control of the judicial system. One outstanding case concerns Johan Berndes d. Even though secretaries played a signiicant role in the early modern administrative system, they have still been mostly seen as oice workers, and have therefore been given surprisingly short shrit in historical studies.
Meanwhile, the everyday tasks of the Royal Chancellery were taken care of by Royal Chancellor swe: Studier i den svenska adelns demograi och ofentliga funktioner — Not only did this abet social unrest, in his opinion, but it added a further burden to the higher levels of administration that already had enough on their hands with the war. Bailifs were thus constantly under suspicion and oten threatened with inspections. Puromiehen kirjapaino, pp.
Patrons and recommendations became very important when an aspiring morifz wanted to make his way up the ladder of the administration system. Among other things, he recruited several experts from Germany who were crucial in the formation period of the 120 tion in the s.
In other words, the stewards had become overall supervisors of perhaps the most important feature of a centralized state — collecting taxes. Law-reader Knut Bock reported ilf his local court session was suddenly interrupted, when Bailif Ture Persson physically attacked one member of the jury and tried to drag him out of the court room.
Prosopographic analysis enables the councillors to be studied collectively, while still taking into account their individual agency and personal life stories. Johan — Kikare, — As late as Duke Charles suggested there should be three meetings of the Council every year. Bergh, Karl IX och den svenska adeln, p.